約翰·F·肯尼迪:民主黨人還是共和黨人?

肯尼迪
文:Larry Elder 

約翰·菲茨杰拉德·肯尼迪減稅,反對墮胎,支持持槍權,相信強大軍隊的作用。他還是個驕傲的民主黨員。但他今天還會是個民主黨員嗎?作家、主持人拉里·埃爾德解釋道。

He was one of America’s most popular presidents — handsome, charismatic, a war hero. He believed a strong military was the best guarantor of peace; he explained that cutting taxes was the best way to grow the economy; he firmly opposed racial quotas, and was horrified by the idea of​​ unrestricted abortions.
他是美國歷史上最受歡迎的總統之一——帥氣,富有魅力,還是戰爭英雄。他堅信強大的軍事力量是和平的最佳保證;他闡明減稅是刺激經濟增長的最佳途徑;他堅定反對種族配額,而且對無限制墮胎的主意深感震驚。

Can you name him?
你能說出他的名字嗎?

Here’s one more clue: He was not a Republican. The answer is: John F. Kennedy.
再提示一點:他不是一名共和黨人。答案是:約翰·菲茨杰拉德·肯尼迪。

When he was elected president in 1960, Kennedy’s views were considered mainstream in the Democratic Party. But while the Kennedy name is still revered by the Democrats today, the policies he espoused are not.
當他在 1960 年當選總統時,肯尼迪的一系列觀點被認為是民主黨內的主流。但是現如今,雖然肯尼迪依舊在民主黨內部飽受尊崇,但是他支持的一系列政策早已被拋棄。

Ronald Reagan, America’s 40th president, who was a Democrat much of his life, famously said, 「 I didn’t leave the Democratic Party. The party left me.」
羅納德·裡根,美國第 40 任總統,他大半生都是民主黨人,有一句名言:「 並不是我離開了民主黨,而是這個黨拋棄了我。」

So, if Kennedy were alive now, which party would he belong to? It’s impossible to know, of course. But we can compare his political positions to those of today’s Democratic Party.
所以,如果肯尼迪健在,他會屬於哪個黨派呢?當然,這已無法知曉。但是我們可以比較他與如今民主黨的政治立場。

On race:
在種族問題上:

JFK disliked the idea of​​ using racial preferences and quotas to make up for historic racism and discrimination. Today, affirmative action is Democratic Party orthodoxy, but Kennedy thought such policies were counterproductive.
肯尼迪反感用種族優先和配額來補償歷史上的種族主義與歧視的主意。如今,積極平權措施是民主黨的正統綱領,但是肯尼迪認為此類政策只會適得其反。

「 I don’t think we can undo the past,」 Kennedy said. 「 We have to do the best we can now…I don’t think quotas are a good idea…We are too mixed, this society of ours, to begin to divide ourselves on the basis of race or color.」
肯尼迪說:「 我想我們無法改變過去。我們必須在此時此刻盡我們全力……我並不認為配額是個好主意……我們身在一個屬於我們的’社會大熔爐’,無法基於種族或者膚色分割彼此。」

On taxes:
在稅務問題上:

Kennedy was an ardent proponent of across-the-board tax cuts, believing that more cash in the hands of all Americans, including the so-called wealthy, and a lighter footprint from the IRS would grow the economy. 「 A tax cut means higher family income and higher business profits,」 Kennedy said in an address to the nation shortly before his death. 「 Every taxpayer and his family will have more money left over after taxes for a new car, a new home, new conveniences, education and investment . Every businessman can keep a higher percentage of his profits in his cash register or put it to work expanding or improving his business.」
肯尼迪是全面減稅的殷切倡導者,篤信應該讓更多現金保留在所有美國人手中,包括所謂的富人;以及國家稅務局越少涉足,越有利於經濟增長。 「 減稅意味著更高的家庭收入和公司盈利,」肯尼迪逝世前不久在全國講話上說,「 每一位納稅人以及他的家人在繳稅後,會剩下更多的錢用來購買新車、新家、新的生活必需品、教育資源以及投資產品。所有商人都可以保留更多的盈利在自己手中,或者用這些收益去擴張或改善自己的經營業務。」

On foreign policy:
在外交政策上:

Kennedy was very firm about his red lines. When the Soviet Union built missile sites in Cuba, leading to what is known as the Cuban Missile Crisis, Kennedy threatened a decisive military response. The Soviet Union backed down. JFK believed, as Ronald Reagan did , in peace through strength, not strength through peace. In his inaugural address, Kennedy made the case for a strong US military. He saw this as the only way to deter America’s enemies. 「 Only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt,」 he said, 「 can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed.」
肯尼迪對於自己的「 紅線」十分堅定。當蘇聯在古巴修建導彈發射基地,導致著名的古巴導彈危機,肯尼迪威脅將採取果斷堅決的武力回應,蘇聯退縮了。肯尼迪相信,也正如羅納德·裡根所堅信的,以實力求和平,而不是以和平求實力。在他的就職演講中,肯尼迪提出加強美國軍事實力,視之為震懾美國的敵人的唯一途徑。他說:「 只有當我們的武裝強大到毋庸置疑,我們方能確信它們永遠不會派上用場。」

On gun rights:
在持槍權上:

Kennedy was one of eight US presidents who was a lifetime member of the NRA. Here’s what he said about the Second Amendment: 「 We need a nation of minutemen – citizens who are not only prepared to take up arms, but citizens who regard the preservation of freedom as a basic purpose of their daily life, and who are willing to consciously work and sacrifice for that freedom.」
肯尼迪是 8 位為美國步槍協會終身會員的總統之一。以下是他對於憲法第二修正案的看法:「 我們國家需要義務民兵,公民不僅時刻準備拿起他們的武器,而且視捍衛自由為他們日常生活的一個基本目標,並且願意為這一自由自覺地奮鬥與犧牲。」

On abortion:
在墮胎問題上:

Kennedy was assassinated a decade before the landmark Supreme Court case Roe v. Wade. Abortion was not a major issue during his administration.
肯尼迪在具有里程碑意義的最高法院羅訴韋德案十年前便遇刺身亡。墮胎並不是他任期內的主要議題。

But we do know that he nominated Justice Byron White, a Democrat, to the Supreme Court. White was one of two justices who dissented in Roe v. Wade. We also know that Kennedy abhorred Japan’s post-WWII use of abortion as a means of population control, saying: “On the question of limiting population: As you know, the Japanese have been doing it very vigorously, through abortion, which I think would be repugnant to all Americans.”
但是我們知道,肯尼迪提名拜倫·懷特法官,一名民主黨人,為最高法院大法官。懷特是在羅訴韋德案中持不同意見的兩位法官之一。我們也知道肯尼迪厭惡日本在二戰後將墮胎作為控制人口的手段,他說:「 在控制人口的問題上:如你們所知,日本已經在不遺餘力地進行,以墮胎為手段。而在我看來這是所有美國人都反感的。 」

Today, if a Democrat advocated the positions on race, taxes, foreign policy, guns and abortion that our 35th president once did, he wouldn’t be a Democrat. He’d belong to that other party.
今天,如果一位民主黨人在種族、稅制、外交政策、持槍權和墮胎上主張的立場和我們第 35 任總統一致,他不會是一名民主黨人。他將會屬於另外一個黨派。

I’m Larry Elder for Prager University.
我是拉里·埃爾德為 PragerU 製作。

來源    風靈   中英對照文本   翻譯:獼猴桃 | 校對:mangosteen FungChuh

 

傳播真相   探究歷史
支持正義  分享快樂

💰 打賞